Interstitial cystitis (IC), also known as painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic pain condition that affects the bladder, bladder pressure, and sometimes the pelvis. Patients typically feel the need to urinate more often with smaller volumes of urine and experience pain in the urinary tract (urethra and/or bladder).
Interstitial Cystitis (IC) - SYMPTOMS
- Pain between the vagina and anus in women
- Pain between the scrotum and anus in men (perineum)
- Pain or discomfort when bladder is full
- Painful urination
- Pain during sexual intercourse
- Urethra, bladder or pelvic pain
- Urinary urgency and frequency
Interstitial Cystitis (IC) - RISK FACTORS
- Women are diagnosed with interstitial cystitis more often than men.
- People with fair skin and red hair have been associated with a greater risk of developing interstitial cystitis.
- Interstitial cystitis patients are usually diagnosed during their 30s or older.
- Other chronic pain disorders, like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or fibromyalgia, may be associated with interstitial cystitis.
Interstitial Cystitis (IC) - TREATMENT
Working with a physical therapist may relax and lengthen tight muscles and releases knots within the pelvic floor muscles
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to relieve pain.
- Tricyclic antidepressants to help relax the bladder and block pain.
- Antihistamines may reduce urinary urgency and frequency and relieve other symptoms.
- Pentosan polysulfate sodium, the only FDA approved drug for interstitial cystitis, may restore the inner surface of the bladder, which protects the bladder wall from substances in urine that could irritate it.
Nerve stimulation techniques deliver mild electrical pulses to relieve pelvic pain and may help reduce urinary urgency and frequency associated with interstitial cystitis.
Cystoscopy with bladder distention is the stretching of the bladder with water to reduce bladder symptoms, such as pain, urgency and urinary frequency.
Medications instilled into the bladder
A doctor uses a catheter to place a mixture of medicines directly into the bladder to relieve pain and discomfort.
Surgical options may include removal of ulcers that can be present with interstitial cystitis.
"Interstitial Cystitis." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 11 Oct. 2016. Web. 17 July 2017.
"Interstitial Cystitis." Interstitial Cystitis" | Johns Hopkins Medicine Health Library. Johns Hopkins Health System, n.d. Web. 17 July 2017.