Acute Interstitial Pneumonia (AIP) Overview: Acute interstitial pneumonitis (AIP), also known as Hamman-Rich syndrome is an uncommon type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia for which researchers have not yet found a cause (idiopathic). Pneumonia results when tissues of the lungs become inflamed in reaction to infection. The inflammation can also extend into the bronchioles, the small airways that branch off into the lungs. Prolonged inflammation causes fibrosis. Over time, scar tissue causes the bronchi and the walls of the bronchi widen, or are destroyed, resulting in the lungs shrinking. The condition usually progresses to respiratory failure and medical treatment is immediately required.
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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term poor airflow. The main symptoms include shortness of breath and cough and sputum (mucus) production. COPD is a progressive disease, which means it usually worsens over time. Eventually everyday activities, such as walking up stairs, become difficult. Tobacco smoking is the most common cause of COPD, with factors such as air pollution playing a smaller role. Diagnosis is based on poor airflow as measured by lung function tests. Most cases of COPD can be prevented by reducing exposure to risk factors, such as smoking cessation and improving air quality. There is no current cure for COPD. Some people may benefit from long term oxygen therapy or lung transplantation.